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    Resources - ieHIP® Glossary

    • ieHIP® Digital Signage
    • ieHIP® Media Connect


    1. Advertising Signage
    2. Advertising signage refers to the promotion of products or services using digital signage as the advertising medium.

      Unlike conventional advertising, ieHIP® Digital Signage is an effective tool to communicate your products and services to your intended audience. Your advertising efforts will connect you with the right people at the right location at the right time.

      Take advantage of the power of ieHIP® Digital Signage for brand building and awareness and ultimately influence your potential target market to patronize your products.

    3. Captive audience networks
    4. Captive audience networks, also popularly referred to as digital signage networks, are digital advertising media (using display monitors like LCDs and plasma screens) employed to broadcast informative contents to targeted audiences. These networks are installed in venues where the target viewers are expected to stay in place for a period of time. Typical sites for these networks are waiting areas in hospitals, banks, store queues, dining halls, and passenger terminals.

      Contents of a well-planned captive audience networks should be informative and relevant to the viewers. Robust and secure, A5TEK's ieHIP® Digital Signage has the ability to narrowcast informative, engaging, and timely messages into captive venues. It gives the operator the full control to remotely set schedule and playlists which may change anytime of the day or in any location of the signage network.

    5. Content Management Server
    6. Content Management Server refers to a device, computer, or server that manages and stores the contents that are disseminated to a digital signage network. The server, with content management software installed, is located in a central site and is used to update contents of digital signages at several locations. Content management server is also widely referred to as network manager, broadcast server, and content distribution server.

      A5TEK offers a sophisticated content management software, the ieHIP® Digital Signage Server, that allows from a single central system to control, manage, and monitor digital signage networks. ieHIP® Digital Signage Server allows, among other things, for creation and scheduling of playlists with different file formats, design of display layout, and update of contents. The contents are then broadcast or narrowcast into the digital signage network.

    7. Corporate Applications
    8. Optimize your existing LAN with in-door digital signages that can help you reinforce by narrowcasting your marketing messages in the lobby, elevators or a waiting lounge. Send greetings in the cafeteria and boost employee morale or send up your power point presentations for the latest company information. ieHIP® Digital Signage Server is ideal for intra-corporate messaging as it enhances corporate image and product mileage to visiting customers.

    9. Digital Displays
    10. Digital Displays are typically used in Digital Signages and come in various devices like LCD monitors, Plasma TVs or LEDs. A5TEK can help you choose the right display system for your Digital Signage appropriate to your location.

    11. Digital Signage
    12. The use of Digital Signage is not new. The digital signages we used to know where just only LED signage systems with very limited capabilities in terms of visual appeal. However, with multimedia authoring tools, cheaper display systems and the ubiquity of the internet, digital signage has made a leap in the visual messaging industry for its ability to narrowcast which typical static signages cannot do.

      A5TEK's ieHIP® Digital Signage software reinforces the potential of digital signages to making your advertising messages more engaging and compelling to your markets.

    13. Digital in-store merchandising
    14. Digital in-store merchandising is the best approach to display targeted marketing contents anywhere in your store. Also known as narrowcast signage, point-of-sale signage, and advertising signage, digital in-store merchandising employs digital display devices (such as LCDs and plasma screens) to attract target audience's attention and eventually influence their buying decisions.

      A5TEK offers ieHIP® Digital Signage Server and ieHIP® Digital Signage - robust, flexible, and secure digital signage software solutions. These solutions give you the complete control over your digital in-store merchandising network to deliver dynamic digital messages with maximum effect. Dynamic messages can be changed to meet the needs of specific in-store locations and targeted demographics at different times of the day.

    15. Digital Media Network
    16. Digital Media Network, in digital signage realm, is composed of a collection of display devices such as liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors, electronic billboards, projection displays, and plasma display panels that are connected together and remotely managed by a network administrator using a digital signage software.

      These networks are visible in retail establishments, corporate offices, schools and academic institutions, government offices, and waiting lounges in terminals, to name a few.

      Digital media networks are now gaining popularity worldwide for their usage in conveying advertising messages, corporate communications, emergency notifications, public service announcements, weather alerts, and other advisories to diverse geographical locations.

      With ieHIP® Digital Signage software, your contents will be efficiently managed and deployed to your digital media networks.

    17. Digital Signage Contents
    18. Contents displayed on digital signages can range from text, static or animated images, and videos all in digital format. ieHIP® Digital Signages' Uniplayer engine supports and plays back popular digital file formats so you can display engaging contents that will give the most impact on your digital signage. In addition, ieHIP® Digital Signage lets you display live feeds as it supports different DTV formats and IP-based contents.

    19. Digital Signage Narrowcasting
    20. A noted benefit of narrowcasting is the ability to display demographically targeted visual messages to any location of the signage network. This is carried out by a content management server that manages the dissemination of these messages in digital signage networks.

      A5TEK's ieHIP® Digital Signage Server is a robust content management and distribution software solution that lets you manage your digital signage systems. The solution offers you the complete control to remotely add, modify, schedule, and distribute playlists. With these powerful yet easy-to-use content scheduling and distribution features, visual messages can be narrowcasted to a specific or group of digital signages giving you the full advantage to manage your communications whether they are simple announcements, way-finding information, or product advertisements.

    21. Digital Signage Network
    22. A digital signage network is a set of connections of display devices such as LCDs (liquid crystal displays), projection screens, plasma display panels, and electronic billboards that are either lifted or mounted on walls to display active contents.

      A server manages a digital signage network and pushes dynamic contents to client computers which in turn distribute contents to display devices. Built around a robust architecture and patented technology, the ieHIP® Digital Signage software suites are just the right software to administer your digital signage networks.

    23. DTV
    24. ieHIP® Digital Signage is the only digital signage software that supports not just one Digital TV (DTV) format but almost all DTV formats such as ATSC, DVBT, DVBS, IPTV and even terrestrial TV.

    25. Dynamic Digital Signage
    26. Dynamic Digital Signage is the latest advertising vehicle used today maximizing the Internet to send ads according to viewer profile in a location. It is also popularly known as narrowcasting or networked advertising using a server that manages all digital signages in the network. A5TEK offers digital signage narrowcasting with its ieHIP® Digital Signage solutions - ieHIP® Digital Signage and ieHIP® Digital Signage Server. Deploy as many digital signages on strategic locations and enjoy full control of any display. Send ads unique to your audience and watch your sales shoot up.

    27. Dynamic billboards
    28. Dynamic billboards revolutionize the way digital contents are disseminated to targeted audiences. They have the ability to exhibit, as opposed to static billboards, lively contents counting animated images, full-motion videos, and tickers to attract intended viewers in specific locations.

      Coming behind those sectored dynamic billboards are digital signage softwares that control the dissemination of active contents. Captivate your audiences, deliver your message effectively, enhance your clients’ experience by making use of dynamic billboards powered by ieHIP® Digital Signage software.

    29. Dynamic Display
    30. One of the significant features of digital signage softwares is the ability to deliver dynamic contents to communicate to the intended viewers. Communication is done with the use of display devices such as LCDs and plasma display panels.

      Dynamic contents usually come in the form of videos and other active images which may contain news, promotions, product updates, announcements, and advertisements. Contents are always up-to-date and pertinent to the viewers.

      Noted benefits of digital signages in delivering dynamic contents are cost and time savings. Digital signage softwares can remotely set schedule and playlists which may change anytime of the day or in any location of the signage network.

      ieHIP® Digital Signage software can seamlessly refresh contents, easily manage networks, and quickly schedule and update playlists. It is ideal in airports, bus stations, malls and other sites where signs need to be constantly updated.

    31. Dynamic Visual Messaging
    32. Dynamic visual messaging makes use of multimedia contents like full-motion videos, animated images, and crawlers to communicate to target viewers. These attractive and engaging messages are viewed on display devices such as LCDs, plasma display panels, and dynamic billboards.

      Dynamic visual messaging can be employed to a wide array of applications. Important announcements, news, and weather and schedule information can be viewed in terminals and transport stations; visitor greetings, event schedules, promo packages can be shown in hotels, museums, and amusement parks; advertisements, company announcements, in-store promotions can be watched in malls or retail outlets.

      Schedule and launch your digital signage system, managed by A5TEK's ieHIP® Digital Signage software, to deliver dynamic visual messages to your target audience. The UniPlayer, one of ieHIP® Digital Signage's powerful engine, supports a broad range of file formats. You need not switch to different media players to display those dynamic contents that give the most visual appeal to your digital signages.

    33. Education Applications
    34. Digital signages as electronic billboards can be especially useful in campuses. When networked, campus-wide information can be posted real-time using narrowcasting software like A5TEK's ieHIP® Digital Signage Server.

      Digital signages in an e-learning environment can enable asynchronous or synchronous learning in that resource persons from a remote location can do live or stream recorded sessions of a topic or demos to a digital signage system in the campus.

    35. Electronic billboards
    36. With the proliferation of liquid crystal displays (LCDs), plasma display panels, projection screens and other emerging display devices, traditional static billboards used for advertising and communications have been widely replaced.

      Electronic billboards are used:

      • To target wider range of demographic audiences
      • For repeated exposure to a message
      • For outdoor or roadside advertising
      • For emergency alert systems
      • ieHIP® Digital Signage is a powerful software package    that will manage your contents played on electronic    billboards.

    37. Entertainment Applications
    38. Keep your clients captivated and entertained using ieHIP® Digital Signage software.

      ieHIP® Digital Signage’s powerful features include the UniPlayer (which virtually plays different types of media formats), multi-tier display and control, and DTV standards compliance.

      Further your clients’ experience and give them a reason to stay longer and reduce apparent wait time by showing, in your facility, high definition live TV feeds and movies, playing karaoke songs, and broadcasting news, movie trailers and promotions.

    39. Government Applications
    40. ieHIP® Digital Signage could be the solution of choice for your outdoor or indoor digital signage needs. Various applications can extend as far as posting of security alerts or alarms in high traffic processing centers or as call tickets along with TV or movie to enhance waiting experience.

    41. Hospitality
    42. Drive your message 24/7 all throughout your facility and enrich customer relationship using dynamic signages powered by ieHIP® Digital Signage software. With ieHIP® Digital Signage, your industry can convey virtually any type of content like your industry’s services, client welcome messages, wayfinding information, cross promotion, DTV feeds, movies and karaoke, and practically anything that will increase customer awareness and augment customer service experience..

      Apart from displaying your industry’s visual contents, your digital signages can also be a revenue hub. Possible revenue-generating contents are paid advertisements by local industries which may be of use by your clients like souvenir shops, transportation, local attractions’ location and schedule, event schedules, etc.

    43. Indoor Digital Sign
    44. Communication is essential in any organization. In fact, organizations always find better ways to communicate to their target audience.

      Indoor digital sign is now accepted as a medium of communication by many organizations because of its massive impact to the intended viewers. Unlike static signs and printed materials, an indoor digital sign grabs attention quickly and reaches more people rapidly.

      Corporations take advantage of indoor digital signs for intra-corporate communications; retail stores, malls, and other retail establishments use them to efficiently communicate and interrelate with customers; campuses employ them to communicate with students and school staff.

      ieHIP® Digital Signage is a highly-effective software that will broadcast or narrowcast current and relevant digital messages within your organization. With its powerful yet user-friendly features, you can easily manage your network of indoor digital signs to update and relay your messages in real time to the right people.

    45. Kiosks
    46. Touch screen kiosks showing ads are increasingly becoming popular in retail environments. Much of these technologies' popularity are due to the fact that they offer excellent means to help deliver targeted marketing contents to shoppers at the point of decision; thus, helping customers make informed buying decisions and encouraging spontaneous purchases.

      Kiosks are electronic self-supporting devices that display information and are configured to let users retrieve information by means of buttons, touch screens, and video displays.

      Take advantage of the opportunity to highlight your products, provide interactive store directories, show advertisements, and enhance your customer experience by deploying kiosks managed by ieHIP® Digital Signage software. ieHIP® Digital Signage is a highly-flexible platform that gives you the absolute control to effectively display messages both in your digital signages and touch screen kiosks.

    47. LCD Sign
    48. Digital displays catch the attention of and influence a customer's buying behavior. Life-sized, high resolution electronic screens like LCDs (liquid crystal displays) complement attention-grabbing messages to get hold of a viewer's attention.

      Use sleek digital displays in your premises, managed by ieHIP® Digital Signage software, to reinforce your brand identity, to launch a new promotional drive, or to enhance customer experience.

    49. Location-Based Advertising
    50. Maximize your revenue potential using ieHIP® Digital Signage to narrowcast ads to your target markets. Location-based advertising or LBA refers to the showing of relevant and timely ads in strategic locations where a customer's buying behavior can be instantaneously influenced, then translated to sale.

    51. Multi-Tier Display
    52. Maximize your digital signage profits with A5TEK's ieHIP® Digital Signage solutions. You can configure your digital signage to display as many ads as you want. Ideal for big screen displays for maximum ad placements.

      Multi-tier Display is a unique digital signage feature only present in A5TEK's digital signage solutions - ieHIP® Digital Signage Client) and ieHIP® Digital Signage Server.

    53. Narrowcasting Software
    54. A5TEK’s ieHIP® Digital Signage software allows you to send or broadcast advertising messages to a network or networks of digital signages. The advantage of narrowcasting is its ability to select where you want your ads to be seen within the network thus, making your ads relevant to the audience.

      The narrowcasting capability of ieHIP® Digital Signage allows you to display advertising on a selective basis or you may want to display simultaneously the same ad all over the network.

      Narrowcasting to a digital signage display consists of a server, like ieHIP® Digital Signage Server, where all client digital signages are controlled from a central location. The server manages, schedules, queues all the contents for playback.

    55. Networked Digital Signage
    56. Networked Digital Signage is a collection of interconnected display devices such as plasma display panels, liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors, computer monitors, and projection displays that are either lifted or mounted on walls or ceilings to display dynamic digital contents.

      The network is managed by a network administrator by means of a digital signage software.

      With its powerful set of features, ieHIP® Digital Signage offers more than delivery of dynamic digital contents; it also powerfully manages networked digital signages.

    57. Out-of-home Advertising
    58. Research shows that out-of-home advertising has become the fastest growing advertising sector because of its ability to connect with indefinable consumers in confined locations including but not limited to terminals, office locations, malls, and sport arenas. Exposure and recall of ads are much higher because they are viewed by people who spend more time outside their homes.

      Among the more popular out-of-home advertising platforms are digital signages. High-impact videos and compelling graphics delivered in multi-tiered and gigantic display screens are used to connect with target audiences.

      Take advantage of this fast-growing visual medium, powered by ieHIP® Digital Signage software, to convey your messages and promote your products and services to your target viewers in high-foot traffic and captive venues.

    59. Playlist
    60. With A5TEK's ieHIP® Digital Signage, you can blend multiple content formats in your playlist. This enables you to display, in your digital signages, as many contents as you want and allows you to alternately play entertaining and informative contents with advertisements.

      A playlist, in digital signage parlance, is a listing of multimedia contents and their play order.

    61. Point of Sale Signages
    62. Many studies have been presented as to the immediate results of digital signages at point of sale (POS) locations. Use ieHIP® Digital Signage to boost sales instantly by posting real-time information of limited-time offerings, new products or services as well as prices.

      Improve customer service with your digital signage by placing product directories or maps; post lost-and-found items and even news bites with ieHIP® Digital Signages' ticker display that is ready to connect to RSS Feeds like news, weather alerts and local traffic situation.

    63. Retail Applications
    64. Digital signages are ideal in POS (point-of-sale) and POP (point-of-purchase) locations like convenience stores, fastfood, pharmacies or specialized shops or boutiques. Digital signages at point of sale locations can help improve sales by posting limited-time offers, display new products or as a value-added service to customers by running news or TV programs along with their in-house or third party ads. Narrowcasting is especially useful when having two or more retail outlets to show in- house or external ads.

    65. Rich Media Digital Signage
    66. Digital signages showing full-motion messages are far more effective at drawing a consumer’s attention than static signs. With a core Uniplayer technology that supports multiple file formats including live streaming videos, A5TEK’s ieHIP® Digital Signage allows you to seamlessly integrate, manage, and distribute rich media applications to your standalone digital signage or networks of digital signages.

    67. Standalone Digital Signage Software
    68. Standalone digital signage software is typically used for single digital signage installations in places like convenience stores showing point-of-purchase promotions, boutiques showing special offer messages, fast foods and cafeterias displaying electronic menu boards, etc.

      A5TEK Corp offers the industry's most versatile digital signage software platform - ieHIP® Digital Signage software. The user-friendly application with a TV-like user interface gives you the tools to easily manage your standalone digital signage. It lets you, among other things, create play lists, schedule playing of contents, and design display window.

      ieHIP® Digital Signage software is scalable to digital signage network solutions. Distinctly flexible, the software supports the growing demands of your enterprise should you plan to network your digital signages. Besides being a standalone solution, ieHIP® Digital Signage can also be a client software capable of requesting and receiving dynamic contents from a digital signage server with ieHIP® Digital Signage Server software installed.

    69. Ticker Display
    70. Keep your viewers informed by integrating ticker displays into your digital signage. Ticker displays could either be RSS feeds containing sports, financial or live news or company-composed messages used for product advertising or simply public service announcements.

      ieHIP® Digital Signage software will manage and seamlessly deliver real-time information and targeted messages displayed as tickers in your digital signages to your intended audience.

    71. Transport Applications
    72. Enhance travel experience using state-of-the-art signage systems. ieHIP® Digital Signage solutions are highly effective in public terminals such as train or bus stations as well as in airports or port terminals. Advertisers and digital signage operators benefit from these high traffic locations while commuters benefit from the digital signages they install. Digital signage owners usually combine ads with what people want to see such as flight or trip schedules, weather forecast, latest news, maps and time zones.

    73. Uniplayer
    74. Playback in any format. Unlike most digital signage software solutions, ieHIP® Digital Signage can play most media formats that you can think of.

    75. Web-based Digital Signage
    76. ieHIP® Digital Signage is a web-based digital signage software that seamlessly disseminates highly-customized and targeted contents to a display device or a chain of interconnected display devices.

      Utilizing the ubiquity of the internet and powered by its Uniplayer engine, ieHIP® Digital Signage plays all types of media format including IP-based applications such as IPTV, IPRadio, and other web-based rich media applications.


    1. Active X
    2. Refers to the technology developed by Microsoft to link desktop applications to the World Wide Web. With an ActiveX-enabled browser, ActiveX controls can be downloaded as part of a Web document to add functionality to the browser (similar to Java applets). In particular ActiveX enables seamless viewing of Windows files of all types in combination with other technologies such as Java and scripting languages, making possible the development of complex Web applications. For example, Word and Excel documents can be viewed directly in Web browsers that supports ActiveX. While ActiveX is a useful technology, the downside is that you need to have an up-to-date version of ActiveX installed on your machine in order to use ActiveX-enabled content.

    3. API
    4. Short for Application Programming Interface. This is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. A good API makes it easier to develop a program by providing all the building blocks. A programmer puts the blocks together. Most operating environments, such as MS-Windows, provide an API so that programmers can write applications consistent with the operating environment. Although APIs are designed for programmers, they are ultimately good for users because they guarantee that all programs using a common API will have similar interfaces. This makes it easier for users to learn new programs.

    5. ASF
    6. Short for Advanced Systems Format, a streaming multimedia file format developed by Microsoft. This is the foundation container format for Windows Media, which holds audio, video, meta-data (titles, author, etc.), indexes and scripts. ASF originally stood for Active Streaming Format but was changed by Microsoft to Advanced Systems Format to eliminate the streaming-only connotation.

    7. Content Organizer
    8. Content management applications serve as an interface to integrate contents received from outside the portal. These can be contents published from web content management systems which allow you to build organization-wide informational content sites. Content Organizer enables you to integrate content of various formats from these systems into the portal. It also serves as a content management integration framework and helps users organize contents which they have already viewed or they intend to view. It also allows users to share these contents to other users.

      Content Organizeraddresses the following three objectives:

      A portal wide content integration platform for contents coming from various content management systems such as Web Content Publisher (WCP), Documentum, Interwoven TeamSite, and Vignette Content Management Server. Content Organizer provides an interface with frameset and service classes for easy and reliable integration with these content management systems. It adds a content abstraction layer to the portal which makes content from different sources and formats available to the portal users in a harmonized and aggregated way.

      • content management application which enables administrators to integrate content formats (for example, press release, or financial results) or use predefined standards, such as Rich Site Summary (RSS) channel items in the portal.

      • A pre-configured lightweight content management application which supports users in dealing with contents. Content Organizer comes with two preconfigured formats:
      • RSS channel item for contents that has been published in this format.
      • An internal Content Organizer format used for managing contents.
      Content Organizer ships as a portal application within ieHIP Media Connect as well as in the ieHIP Media Connect Server. The content access and storage capabilities are contributed by the resource engine.

    9. FTP
    10. Short for File Transfer Protocol, the protocol used on the Internet for exchanging files. FTP works in the same way as HTTP for transferring Web pages from a server to a user's browser and SMTP for transferring electronic mail across the Internet in that, like these technologies, FTP uses the Internet's TCP/IP protocols to enable data transfer. FTP is most commonly used to download a file from a server using the Internet or to upload a file to a server (e.g., uploading a Web page file to a server).

    11. HTML
    12. Short for Hypertext Markup Language, the document format language used on the World Wide Web. Web browsers read HTML and display the page. It is a markup language used to create hypertext documents that are platform independent. HTML documents are SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) documents with generic semantics that are appropriate for representing information from a wide range of domains. HTML markup can represent hypertext news, mail, documentation, and hypermedia; menus of options; database query results; simple structured documents with in-lined graphics; and hypertext views of existing bodies of information.

    13. HTTP
    14. Short for HyperText Transport Protocol. This is used to transfer HTML documents of the World Wide Protocol, the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web. It defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. It is a "stateless" request / response system. The connection is maintained between client and server only for the immediate request. After the HTTP client establishes a TCP connection with the server and sends it a request command, the server sends back its response and closes the connection. For example, when you enter a URL in your browser, this actually sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and transmit the requested Web page.

    15. IP
    16. Short for Internet Protocol. It specifies the format of packets, also called datagrams, and the addressing scheme. Most networks combine IP with a higher-level protocol called Transport Control Protocol (TCP), which establishes a virtual connection between a destination and a source. IP by itself is something like the postal system. It allows you to address a package and drop it in the system, but there’s no direct link between you and the recipient. TCP/IP, on the other hand, establishes a connection between two hosts so that they can send messages back and forth for a period of time.

    17. MCE 2005
    18. Refers to Microsoft’s Media Center Edition 2005. This is an all-inclusive media software system that is sold as a package with Microsoft XPE operating system.

    19. QoS
    20. Short for Quality Of Service. A defined level of performance in a data communications system. For example, to ensure that realtime voice and video are delivered without annoying blips, a guarantee of bandwidth is required. The plain old telephone system (POTS) has delivered the highest quality of service for years, because there is a dedicated channel between parties. However, when data is broken into packets that travel through the same routers in the LAN or WAN with all other data, QoS mechanisms is one way to guarantee quality by giving realtime data priority over non-realtime data. The only other way is to overbuild the network so there is always sufficient bandwidth.

    21. Real Player
    22. A multimedia player created by RealNetworks that plays RealAudio and RealVideo transmissions. Included is the technology for organizing music files and creating MP3 files from audio CDs. The name was changed to RealOne in 2001 along with several refinements and later renamed back to RealPlayer. A number of multimedia formats included are MP3, MPEG-4, QuickTime, etc.

    23. RCTP
    24. Short for Realtime Control Protocol. It is a companion protocol to RTP that is used to maintain QoS (Quality Of Service). RTP nodes analyze network conditions and periodically send each other RTCP packets that report on network congestion.

    25. RTP
    26. Short for Realtime Transport Protocol. An IP protocol that supports realtime transmission of voice and video. It is widely used for IP telephony and audio and video streaming. It consists of a data and a control part. The data part of RTP is a thin protocol providing support for applications with real-time properties such as continuous media (e.g., audio and video), including timing reconstruction, loss detection, security and content identification. An RTP packet rides on top of UDP, the non-reliable counterpart of TCP, and includes time-stamping and synchronization information in its header for proper reassembly at the receiving end. Secure RTP (SRTP) is a version of RTP that provides confidentiality and message authentication.

    27. RSP
    28. Short for Realtime Streaming Protocol. RTSP is used to control an RTP session at the application layer. It enables functions such as pause, rewind and fast forward to be provided in the user's client software.

    29. Server Area Structure
    30. The file system displayed in the IBM Web Administration for iSeries interface uses a "tree structure" that is based on the configuration of your IBM HTTP Server and shows the hierarchical order and location of files and directories. The Server Area list represents this structure. For example, the server tree structure could show that extending under the server root is the document root where HTML files are located (htdocs by default), an HTTP Server log directory (logs by default), and an HTTP server configuration directory (conf by default). Another way of viewing and understanding the server tree structure is by titles of a family group. You have the "parent" directory which has a "child" directory under it. In this context, the server root (www) would be the parent and document root, log directory, and HTTP server configuration directory would be a child (subdirectories) of the server root. Considering that each HTTP Server is different, server tree structures are unique to each HTTP Server.

    31. SMIL
    32. Short for Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language. (Pronounced as "smile.") A format for delivering and synchronizing multimedia content on the Web. Introduced in the summer of 1998 by the W3C, it is a document type (DTD) of XML and provides the timing commands that enable audio, video and graphics elements to be executed sequentially or in parallel. SMIL supports multimedia streaming protocols such as RTSP.

    33. Streaming Conventions and Architecture
    34. The ITS Streaming Video Service supports MPEG, MP3, QuickTime, Real, and Windows Media for video-on-demand. MPEG-2 is only available for on-campus viewers (because of bandwidth requirements). Webcasting is currently being offered in Real and QuickTime.

      Which convention to select depends on several factors, including audience location, what streaming players your audience is most comfortable using, and what tools you are most comfortable using in preparing a streaming program. ITS is investigating transcoding equipment that would allow us to record / store in one format, but deliver multiple formats in real-time.

      The following is a quick explanation of some of the basic terms you will encounter in streaming media discussions:
      • CO-DEC - a COmpression-DECompression algorithm used for efficient storage and transmission of a data file, such as a video or audio file.

      • MPEG - the Moving Picture Experts Group defines industry standards for the encoding, management, and delivery of content through various media.

      • MPEG-1 - a codec designed for near-VHS quality video. MPEG-1 is primarily designed for CD-ROM delivery of content through various media.

      • MPEG-2 - a codec designed for high-quality video. MPEG-2 is primarily used for DVD disc encoding and other high-quality archival solutions, but can be streamed over high-bandwidth connections, such as Internet2. MPEG-2 playback often requires additional software and / or hardware.

      • MP3 - a codec designed for audio. MP3 is the most popular standard used for distribution on the Internet and in portable music players, such as Apple’s iPod. Note that MP3 stands for MPEG Audio Layer 3, not MPEG-3 (there is no MPEG-3). MPEG-4, QuickTime, Real, and Windows Media are all streaming media architectures. They can handle a variety of media such as audio, video, text, animation, and 3D. They also support some forms of metadata (information about the media asset) and interactivity.

      • MPEG-4 - built around non-proprietary codecs, MPEG-4 excels at multi-architecture compatibility. Future codecs should enhance quality.

      • QuickTime - built around several non-proprietary codecs, QuickTime excels at medium to high bandwidth clips. It supports MPEG-4.

      • Real - built around proprietary RealNetworks codecs, Real format excels at low to medium bandwidth clips. It supports MPEG-4. Producers can use the SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language) language to add interactivity.

      • Windows Media - built around proprietary Microsoft codecs, Windows Media excels at medium bandwidth clips. It does not support MPEG-4.

    35. Streaming Video
    36. Streaming video is one-way video transmission across a data network, which provides a continuous digital video and/or audio signal. As a viewer, you typically make a web browser-based player connection to a streaming server to receive a webcast (live programs) or video-on-demand (previously recorded programs). The program is sent from the server to your player in a continuous fashion, as opposed to having the entire program downloaded before viewing can begin. Viewing begins much quicker with streaming. No copy of the entire program is stored on the computer being used for viewing.

      In the following graphic, the blue cylinder represents a server and the tan rectangle a personal computer. The top line shows the process for the typical file transfer: request asset, receive entire asset, then play asset. The lower line shows the process for streaming: request asset, start transmission, start playing, continue sending "chunks", end transmission, end playing.

      Each viewer receives their own stream from the server, so bandwidth can be an issue for popular webcasts. The same video-on-demand program can be started at any time by different viewers.

    37. TCP
    38. Short for Transmission Control Protocol. A protocol used along with the Internet Protocol (IP) to send data in the form of individual units (called packets) between computers over the Internet. While IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, TCP takes care of keeping track of the packets that a message is divided into for efficient routing through the Internet. For example, when a web page is downloaded from a web server, the TCP program layer in that server divides the file into packets, numbers the packets, and then forwards them individually to the IP program layer and establishes a connection between two hosts so that they can send messages back and forth for a period of time.

    39. Thin / Thick Client
    40. In client / server applications, a client designed to be especially small so that the bulk of the data processing occurs on the server.

      Although the term thin client usually refers to software, it is increasingly used for computers, such as network computers and Net PCs, that are designed to serve as the clients for client/server architectures. A thin client is a network computer without a hard disk drive, whereas a fat client includes a disk drive.

      Advantages of thin clients Obviously, boot image control is much simpler when only thin clients are used - typically a single boot image can accommodate a very wide range of user needs, and be managed centrally, resulting in:

      1. Lower IT admin costs. Thin clients are managed almost entirely at the server. The hardware has fewer points of failure and the local environment is highly restricted (and often stateless), providing protection from malware.

      2. Easier to secure. Thin clients can be designed so that no application data ever resides on the client (it is entirely rendered), centralizing malware protection.

      3. Lower hardware costs. Thin client hardware is generally cheaper because it does not contain a disk, application memory, or a powerful processor. They also generally have a longer period before requiring an upgrade or becoming obsolete.

      4. Worthless to thieves. Thin client hardware, whether dedicated or simply older hardware that has been repurposed via cascading, is useless or of little interest outside a client-server environment. Burglars interested in computer equipment have a much harder time fencing thin client hardware (and it is less valuable).

      Advantages of thick clients

      1. Less network bandwidth. Thick clients typically require less network bandwidth.

      2. Fewer server requirements. A thick client server does not require as high of performance as a thin client server (since the thick clients themselves do much of the application processing). This results in drastically cheaper servers.

      3. Better multimedia performance. Thick clients have advantages in multimedia-rich applications that would be bandwidth intensive if fully served. For example, thick clients are well suited for video gaming.

      4. More flexibility. Many software products are designed for personal computers that have their own local resources. Trying to run this software in a thin client environment can be difficult.

    41. URL
    42. Short for Uniform Resource Locator, the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web. URLs are typed into a Web browser to access Web pages and files, and URLs are embedded within the pages themselves as hypertext links. A way of specifying the location of something on the Internet, e.g.,"http://www.photo.net/wtr/thebook/glossary.html" is the URL for this glossary. The part before the colon specifies the protocol (HTTP). Legal alternatives include encrypted protocols such as HTTPS and legacy protocols such as FTP, news, gopher, etc.

      a) The part after the "//" is the server hostname ("photo.net").

      b) The part after the next "/" is the name of the file on the remote server. Overall, the URL contains the protocol prefix, port number, domain name, subdirectory names and file name. If a port number is not stated in the address, port 80 is used as the default for HTTP traffic.

    43. WMP 10
    44. Having a large digital music collection is great, but organizing it can be tricky. While a collection of loosely arranged directories may suit some, using an application is a much better option.

      The two main applications you're likely to come across are iTunes and Windows Media Player (WMP), both of which are free downloads. Here we'll look at the latest versions, iTunes 4.7 and WMP10.

      One of the main changes in WMP10 is its built-in support for ripping tracks to MP3. Previous versions supported only WMA files natively, and users had to buy an MP3 codec. While WMA is a better format that produces higher-quality sound at lower bit rates, MP3 has wider support. This is particularly important if you buy a wireless receiver, as they all support MP3 but not all work with WMA.